||Symptoms of Deficiency
||Symptoms of Excess
||Required for formation of chlorophyll in plant cells.
||Yellow-green color, but veins remain green; twig dieback; reduced growth, and death in severe cases.
||Mimics phosphorus, manganese deficiency
||Assists iron in chlorophyll formation and serves as activator for enzymes in growth process.
||Yellow-green color of young leaves, but no sharp distinction between veins and interveinal areas as with iron.
||Mimics iron deficiency; loss of foliage color, bronzing of leaf margins, necrotic areas.
||Important plant growth regulator; essential in root and plant growth. Micronutrient most often deficient in San Diego crops.
||Yellow-green color, but veins remain green; decrease in stem length; rosetting of terminal leaves; reduced fruit bud formation; twig dieback after first year
||Regulates metabolism of carbohydrates in plants. Critical for new growth in plants and assists in flower pollination, fertilization, fruit set.
||Death of terminal growth; thickened, curled, wilted leaves; Reduced flowering.
||Rare except in inland deserts with high boron contaminated water.
||Activator of enzymes in plants.
||Stunted growth; dieback of terminal shoots in trees; death of leaf tips.
||Required for photosynthesis and root growth.
||Very rare; wilting followed by yellow-green color; leaf bronzing.
||Poor growth; marginal leaf necrosis.
||Required by plants for the utilization of nitrogen. Plants cannot transform nitrate nitrogen into amino acids without molybdenum.
||Stunting; reduced yield; lack of vigor; marginal scorching; cupping, rolling of leaves.
||Needed to complete the life cycle of the plant and viable seed.
||Leaf tip necrosis
||Induces iron and zinc deficiency. Interveinal yellowing of foliage.